Tunnel construction & remediation

Tunnels are excavated in materials varying from soft clay to hard rock. The method of tunnel construction depends on factors such as ground conditions, ground water levels, length and diameter of the tunnel drive, depth of the tunnel, logistics of supporting the tunnel excavation, final use and shape of the tunnel and appropriate risk management.

The following types of tunnel construction are commonly used:

  • Cut-and-cover method
  • Bored tunnel method, constructed in situ, without removing the ground above. They are usually of circular or horseshoe cross-section.
  • Immersed tube tunnel method, sunk into a body of water and overlaid on or buried just under its bed.
  • Shaft method
  • Pipe jacking method
  • Box jacking method

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